BK BOOKS https://books.bk.tudelft.nl/press <p><strong>BK BOOKS</strong>&nbsp;is an open press dedicated to open access book publications that are authored, edited and/or published by staff members of TU Delft's Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment,&nbsp;or its predecessors: Faculty of Architecture // OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment // Berlage Institute. The Dutch name for this faculty is Bouwkunde. This explains the abbreviation BK.</p> en-US BK BOOKS Technology and Society in Equilibrium https://books.bk.tudelft.nl/press/catalog/book/794 <p>This sector portrait of the design engineering sciences describes the common denominator of the various design disciplines in the Netherlands. In a future sector plan, the above investment areas will be further explored and purposefully developed.</p> <p>The implementation of technological innovations aligned to societal issues encompasses a design challenge. This increasingly demands science-based design methodologies. The broad Dutch design landscape can fulfil the role of connector well in this regard. In order to optimally strengthen this bridging function, three areas for further investment have been identified:</p> <p><strong>Research</strong></p> <p>More research and research funding are needed to meet the design challenges posed by Dutch societal missions, as well as for the further development of Key Enabling Methodologies (KEMs) as the basis for effective design.</p> <p><strong>Educational Capacity</strong></p> <p>Expanded teaching capacity and further development of design-driven didactics are needed to meet the growing demand for designers, This demand stems from the emerging need for design approaches in new research programmes within Horizon Europe and the Dutch Research Council (NWO).</p> <p><strong>Access to Technology</strong></p> <p>Continuous access to the rapidly evolving technological disciplines must be guaranteed for professionals who can both understand the technology and meet the investigative design challenge.</p> Ena Voûte Frank van der Hoeven Paul Hekkert Martijn Warnier Hans Suijkerbuijk LinLin Chen Berry Eggen Jacob Voorthuis Geert Jan van Houtum Mascha van der Voort Geke Ludden Erwin Hans Leentje Volker Karin Schroen Sanda Lenzholzer Katrien Termeer Wilfred Dolfsma Iris Vis Cor Wagenaar Jos Arts Dario Bauso Terry van Dijk Annet Kempenaar Gerald Jonker Copyright (c) 2021 Ena Voûte, Frank van der Hoeven, Paul Hekkert, Martijn Warnier, Hans Suijkerbuijk, LinLin Chen, Berry Eggen, Jacob Voorthuis, Geert Jan van Houtum, Mascha van der Voort, Geke Ludden, Erwin Hans, Leentje Volker, Karin Schroen, Sanda Lenzholzer, Katrien Termeer, Wilfred Dolfsma, Iris Vis, Cor Wagenaar, Jos Arts, Dario Bauso, Terry van Dijk, Annet Kempenaar, Gerald Jonker (Volume editor) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-14 2021-10-14 Fifth International Conference on SALT WEATHERING OF BUILDINGS AND STONE SCULPTURES https://books.bk.tudelft.nl/press/catalog/book/791 <p>These proceedings report on the 5th edition of the conference, after Copenhagen (2008), Cyprus (2011), Brussel (2014) and Potsdam (2017), and it is the first time the conference is held in hybrid form, due to the COVID-19 pandemic.&nbsp;It is a challenge to organize an event in such an uncertain situation and to make it as attractive and interactive as the previous editions. We hope to meet your expectations!</p> <p>I’m very glad, that despite the situation, the interest for the conference is strong: we have received more than 40 contributions from 18 countries from all over the world. This confirms the relevance of the problem of salt weathering for the built cultural heritage and stone artifacts in a wide range of environments.</p> <p>Moreover, the broad spectrum of approaches to the subject presented in these proceedings highlights the importance of the interaction between different disciplines as well as between fundamental research and practice of conservation. I wish this conference to contribute to this fruitful exchange, and to generate new research ideas, whilst strengthening and broadening interdisciplinary collaborations.</p> <p>On behalf of the organizing committee, I’m looking forward to welcoming as many as possible of you in Delft. We hope that, next to participation to the conference, you will find some free time to visit the city. You can stroll along the canals, enter a windmill, visit the Prinsenhof museum and the Blue Delft Factory, admire the architecture and sculptures in the Old and New Church and, if you are looking for a real Dutch experience, you can rent a bicycle and visit the surroundings!</p> <p>This event would not have been possible without the collaboration of several persons. I would like to thank, on behalf of us all, the Scientific Committee for carefully reviewing the papers and contributing thereby to the high quality of the published contributions. My personal thank goes to the organizing committee who significantly contributed to the organization of this event and to the preparation of the proceedings. Last but not least, I’d like to thank the Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands for co-sponsoring the event and RILEM (International Union of Laboratories and Experts in Construction Materials, Systems and Structures) for contributing to the dissemination.</p> Barbara Lubelli Ameya Kamat Wido Quist Copyright (c) 2021 Barbara Lubelli, Ameya Kamat (Volume editor); Wido Quist (Author) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 Spatial Building Typology - Vacant Heritage: Department Stores | V&D’s https://books.bk.tudelft.nl/press/catalog/book/790 <p>On 31 december 2015, the department store of Vroom &amp; Dreesmann (V&amp;D), which was founded in 1887, officially went bankrupt. This ended the rich history of a department store that had branches in many Dutch cities and towns.</p> <p>This raises the question: what happens to the traditional twentieth century commercial areas in major Dutch cities in an era that everyone is shopping online? In the historic city centres of Haarlem, Leiden, Dordrecht and Amersfoort for example, many buildings are vacant because traditional retailing is almost impossible. For over a century, the use of the city centre was dictated by commercial activities yet nowadays shopping streets are empty. Shops and department stores are closed, leaving a desolate image. In 2016 V&amp;D went bankrupt and all their buildings became vacant. The revival of Hudson’s Bay for several V&amp;D buildings was not successful either. These large buildings with clear corporate identities and the smaller retail shops are in urgent need of transformation to secure liveability. This research contributes to the broader question of Vacant Heritage: can you find indicators for building typologies that will become obsolete and are there general concepts for revitalisation?</p> <p>In this book, eight different vacant department stores from the V&amp;D will be analysed. All buildings are located in large or small cities throughout the Netherlands: Leiden, Alkmaar, Amsterdam, Haarlem, Amersfoort, Maastricht, Enschede and Dordrecht. These department stores were all developed within the historic city walls, in what we now call the historic centers.</p> <p>The typological research for this book is linked to the Vacant Heritage studio. Traditional research methods into typologies in architecture almost always assume typologies based on functions. Typology = ‘the study of types or the systematic classification of the types of something according to their common characteristics’ (Wikipedia). However, as the function and use of the original buildings change nowadays, a different approach is needed to investigate building typologies. Instead of the functions, the space becomes central. Research into similarities and differences in the spatial characteristics of a collection of buildings, which were originally realized for one specific function (group), yields a series of spatial properties that can give direction to the possibilities for redesign. Spatial building typology = the study of types and systematic classification of the types of buildings according to their common spatial characteristics and qualities.</p> <p>Over the years, various buildings originally designed for one specific function have been the subject of education and research at Heritage &amp; Architecture (HA). As there are: churches, monasteries, department stores, museums, factory buildings for production, educational buildings, etc. The research builds on the research carried out by HA in the tradition of Building Analysis.</p> Lucca Fischer Vincent Versluijs Iris Jansen Hielkje Zijlstra Copyright (c) 2021 Lucca Fischer, Vincent Versluijs, Iris Jansen, Hielkje Zijlstra (Volume editor) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 Waterfront Analysis and Design https://books.bk.tudelft.nl/press/catalog/book/789 <p>Waterfront Analysis and Design Comparative Report of Beijing, Suzhou and Yinchuan systematically summarizes the research and planning cases. Conventional concepts and strategies concerning urban planning implemented in Beijing, Suzhou and Yinchuan have long been established, and the construction of many areas in these cities have been widely finished. Under such circumstances, based on analyses of the three cities and several typical cases of waterfront planning, this book breaks through the established conceptual constraints and delves into the commonalities and differences among the cases through systematic scientific approaches. On top of conducting the intensive research into urban waterfronts planning at levels of both basic theory and methodology, this book also presents specific practices of urban waterfront planning and design customized to the urban water system, as well as the layout and space of waterfront areas. By displaying how research findings can be applied into urban design, this book is of unique significance on value transmission.</p> <p>The book is broken down into four chapters, namely Comparison, Beijing, Suzhou and Yinchuan. Comparing and researching the water-city relations of the three cities.</p> <p>Chapter Comparison makes clear of the development characteristics of urban spatial structure based on changes of water systems in these cities with different geographical environments, and researches the patterns of urban spatial organization. Finally, the chapter summarizes the creating mode and focus of urban waterfronts under the effects of different natural environments, water networks and city landscapes.</p> <p>Chapter Beijing is compiled jointly by Harbin Institute of Technology and China Architecture Design and Research Group. Led by Professor Suning Xu, the study is structured as the combination of “research”, “judgment” and “design”. Studying the historical changes of water-city relation in Beijing and comparing the water-city relation of world typical capitals with that of prominent Chinese ancient capitals. This chapter sets the overall goal for Beijing’s waterfront development; The value system of the waterfront area is evaluated in 6 dimensions, including ecology, space, demand, history, economy and aesthetics, based on which the urban design strategy is crafted and verified with the design of typical nodes.</p> <p>Chapter Suzhou is put together by Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Iuav University of Venice, Tianjin University, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University in Suzhou and China Architecture Design and Research Group. At the macro level, the joint research team analyzed the spatial structure of Suzhou urban area, selected important urban waterfronts based on the comprehensive considerations of urban functions, different water network structures, ecological protection and urban landscapes, and proposed practical urban design strategy and guidance at various grades and of different types; At the micro level, dedicated to the objectives of “properly clustered water networks, water conservation, living along the water, open and sharing, and reflection of historical culture”, the team offered key points for different urban waterfront designs.</p> <p>Chapter Yinchuan is collectively compiled by Delft University of Technology, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Ningxia University and China Architecture Design and Research Group. Adopting the RTD (research through design) method, in other words, further defining research questions through designing and exploring various possibilities and solutions, the joint research team attempted to identify comprehensive solutions at multiple levels: Yinchuan city as a whole, the urban areas where the waterfronts are located, and the waterfronts themselves; Jointly led by landscape architects and urban designers, the research of waterfront design in Yinchuan highlights the ecology-based analysis method and design strategy.</p> Yifan YANG Suning XU Paola VIGANO Dachang YUAN Hui LIU Marco LUB Luiz de CARVALHO FILHO Copyright (c) 2021 Yifan YANG, Suning XU, Paola  VIGANO, Dachang YUAN, Hui LIU, Marco LUB, Luiz de CARVALHO FILHO (Volume editor) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 Technologie en Maatschappij in Balans https://books.bk.tudelft.nl/press/catalog/book/786 <p>Dit sectorbeeld van de ontwerpende ingenieurswetenschappen beschrijft de grote gemeenschappelijke deler van de verschillende ontwerpdisciplines in Nederland. In aanloop naar het schrijven van dit sectorbeeld hebben we gezamenlijk bepaald waar onze sterkte ligt, en waar we concreet kunnen bijdragen aan het oplossen van maatschappelijke knelpunten.</p> <p>Implementatie van technologische innovaties in aansluiting op maatschappelijke uitdagingen omvat een ontwerpopgave. Dit vereist in toenemende mate wetenschappelijk onderbouwde ontwerpmethodieken. Het brede Nederlandse ontwerplandschap kan hierbij de rol van verbinder goed vervullen. Teneinde deze brugfunctie optimaal te versterken worden drie gebieden voor verdere investeringen gezien:</p> <p><strong>Onderzoek</strong></p> <p>Er is meer onderzoek en onderzoeksfinanciering nodig voor het volbrengen van ontwerpuitdagingen die in de Nederlandse maatschappelijke missies worden gesteld, evenals voor de verdere ontwikkeling van Key Enabling Methodologies als basis voor effectief ontwerp.</p> <p><strong>Onderwijscapaciteit</strong></p> <p>Er is een ruimere onderwijscapaciteit en verdere ontwikkeling van ontwerp gestuurde didactiek nodig om te kunnen voldoen aan de groeiende vraag naar ontwerpers, een vraag die voortkomt uit de opkomende behoefte aan ontwerpaanpakken in nieuwe onderzoeksprogramma’s binnen Horizon Europe en NWO.</p> <p><strong>Toegang tot technologie</strong></p> <p>Er moet voortdurend toegang gegarandeerd zijn tot de zich snel ontwikkelende technologische disciplines voor professionals die zowel de technologie doorgronden als de onderzoekende ontwerpuitdaging aankunnen. Dit sectorbeeld van de ontwerpende ingenieurswetenschappen beschrijft de grote gemeenschappelijke deler van de verschillende ontwerpdisciplines in Nederland. In een toekomstig sectorplan zullen bovenstaande inversteringsgebieden verder en doelgericht worden uitgewerkt.</p> Ena Voûte Frank van der Hoeven Paul Hekkert Martijn Warnier Hans Suijkerbuijk LinLin Chen Berry Eggen Jacob Voorthuis Geert Jan van Houtum Mascha van der Voort Geke Ludden Erwin Hans Leentje Volker Bart Koopman Geert Dewulf Karin Schroen Sanda Lenzholzer Katrien Termeer Wilfred Dolfsma Iris Vis Cor Wagenaar Jos Arts Dario Bauso Terry van Dijk Annet Kempenaar Gerald Jonker Copyright (c) 2021 Ena Voûte, Frank van der Hoeven, Paul Hekkert, Martijn Warnier, Hans Suijkerbuijk, LinLin Chen, Berry Eggen, Jacob Voorthuis, Geert Jan van Houtum, Mascha van der Voort, Geke Ludden, Erwin Hans, Leentje Volker, Bart Koopman, Geert Dewulf, Karin Schroen, Sanda Lenzholzer, Katrien Termeer, Wilfred Dolfsma, Iris Vis, Cor Wagenaar, Jos Arts, Dario Bauso, Terry van Dijk, Annet Kempenaar, Gerald Jonker (Volume editor) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-06-28 2021-06-28 Cultural Heritage Leading Urban Futures https://books.bk.tudelft.nl/press/catalog/book/787 <p>The ROCK project sees historic city centres as laboratories to demonstrate how Cultural Heritage can be an&nbsp;engine of regeneration, sustainable development and economic growth. ROCK approach foresees the systemic&nbsp;and flexible application of a series of role-model practices in the testing sites of three Replicator cities, to turn&nbsp;historic city centres afflicted by physical decay, social conflicts and poor life quality into Creative and Sustainable&nbsp;Districts.&nbsp;This book provides an overview of the project, extracting themes, material and final remarks from the Open&nbsp;Knowledge Week “Cultural Heritage Leading Urban Futures”, held on 27-30 October 2020. Over the past three years,&nbsp;ten ROCK cities – Athens, Bologna, Cluj-Napoca, Eindhoven, Lisbon, Liverpool, Lyon, Skopje, Turin, and Vilnius&nbsp;– together with service providers and knowledge brokers have tested and advanced numerous soft and hard&nbsp;tools, collaborative approaches aimed at shaping sustainable, heritage-led urban futures. This book shows their&nbsp;shared results, best practices and lessons learnt from interdisciplinary research, innovative action, dissemination&nbsp;of knowledge and creation of new synergies at European level.</p> Giovanni Leoni Andrea Boeri Danila Longo Valentina Gianfrate Martina Massari Saveria Olga Murielle Boulanger Rossella Roversi Copyright (c) 2021 Giovanni Leoni, Andrea Boeri, Danila Longo, Valentina Gianfrate, Martina Massari, Saveria Olga Murielle Boulanger, Rossella Roversi (Volume editor) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-06-23 2021-06-23 Socio-Economic Segregation and Income Inequality https://books.bk.tudelft.nl/press/catalog/book/785 <p>This book attempts to get a true global overview of trends in urban inequality and residential socio-economic segregation in a large number of cities all over the world. It investigates the link between income inequality and socio-economic residential segregation in 24 large urban regions in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America and South America. In many ways the book is a sequel to the earlier book “Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities” which focussed solely on trends in Europe. Although that book was very well received, readers also asked whether trends in Europe were representative for what is happening in the rest of the world. This new book is a direct response to that question and aims to be more globally representative.</p> <p>The main outcome of this book is the proposal of a Global Segregation Thesis, which combines ideas of rising levels of inequality, rising levels of socio-economic segregation, and important changes in the social geography of cities. At the time of writing this preface, the world is still grappling with the global outbreak of COVID-19. Now the spread of the virus is slowing down in the Global North, the Global South is hit very hard. In response to the spread of the virus, unprecedented measures were taken, having a huge impact on the world economy. It is widely expected that these measures will lead to a deep economic crisis, which will hit those who are the most vulnerable hardest. Some of the chapters in this book mention the COVID-19 crisis, and it is expected that this crisis will speed up the increase in inequality, both globally and locally, leading to an accelerated growth in socio-economic segregation in cities.</p> <p>This book would not have been possible without the generous contributions from author teams from all over the world. We are very grateful for their generosity and their contributions. Much of the editorial time invested in this book was covered by funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Program (FP/2007-2013)/ERC Grant Agreement n.615159 (ERC Consolidator Grant DEPRIVEDHOODS, Socio-spatial inequality, deprived neighbourhoods and neighbourhood effects); from the Estonian Research Council (PUT PRG306, Infotechnological Mobility Laboratory, RITA-Ränne), and from TU Delft where Tiit Tammaru was a visiting professor in 2018.</p> Maarten van Ham Rūta Ubarevičienė Tiit Tammaru Heleen Janssen Copyright (c) 2021 Maarten van Ham, Rūta Ubarevičienė, Tiit Tammaru, Heleen Janssen (Volume editor) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-05 2021-04-05 aE Journal 2020/2021 https://books.bk.tudelft.nl/press/catalog/book/784 <p>Does architecture still belong to the architect?</p> <p>Building is getting more and more complicated. Today an architect must be able to work across multiple disciplines. A new generation of architects attach less importance to ‘authorship’. Do architects see themselves as independent consultants any longer? They increasingly act as entrepreneurs who are part of a team of various disciplines and fields. Responsibility for a building or work of art is borne by several parties instead of just the architect. Does the team jointly take responsibility for architectural quality? In other words, does architecture still belong to the architect?</p> <p>Influence of users</p> <p>Influence of end-users is very important for every building. In the twentieth century we started with huge home productions. Many people had to be housed. Today there is a much greater need for how such mass production can adapt to the people themselves. How can you provide an answer to what is needed? We are working on mass customised building systems to optimise the high demand for housing. In the twentieth century, an architect said, “It’s not what they want, it’s what you want.” This attitude seems completely reversed and requires new answers from the architect. Another factor is that new digital technologies linked to machine-based production methods give great freedom in manufacturability. Think of 3D printing, robotics and CNC milling, for example. More freedom of design is generated. The “new architect” can play an ingenious role in this. In terms of process and product. Connecting digitisation and materialisation integrally.</p> <p>Architectural sustainability</p> <p>The aesthetic aspect will never be subordinate. You don’t just demolish a well-designed building. We attach ourselves to it. The aim must be to make sustainability and circularity an integral part of the creation of architecture. The implementation of the assignment can consist of assembling numerous different components, each of which also has its own life cycle. Designers together with clients must take the lead in this. We need new inspiring examples in the field of architecture that show society how we can build sustainably and intelligently. Government and investors must stimulate this.</p> <p>Create valuable neighbourhoods</p> <p>We must continue to work on making our own identities and culture visible. And we have to strengthen it. Diversity must remain linked to local and climatic conditions and the availability of materials. It is precisely by making use of the local availability of energy, materials and of the mobility that can be enhanced on site (such as water), that design choices remain inspired and influenced by local circumstances. Especially now that we are increasing parametric design and implementing digital systems in our daily practice, it requires new digital craftsmanship.</p> <p>The new architect</p> <p>Well-trained architects across all scales must be the pioneers of smart buildings and urban structures that also have cultural added value. This should be encouraged. It is called ‘value by design’. The complexity of our assignments is huge. Major architectural issues in urban and landscape environments await us, where it is of paramount importance that these can be tackled by the right talents with the right attitude. They must be supported in this by science, education, professionals, industry, politics and clients. This requires an attitude from the architect that I summarise as “the new architect”. This attitude is of added value to our society at all levels of the use of our built and unbuilt environment. This attitude is the guiding theme for aE. The future is now.</p> Thijs Asselbergs Annebregje Snijders Mo Smit Mauro Parravicini Edmund Thomas Green Copyright (c) 2021 Thijs Asselbergs, Annebregje Snijders, Mo Smit, Mauro Parravicini, Edmund Thomas Green (Volume editor) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 The Adventure of Form https://books.bk.tudelft.nl/press/catalog/book/783 <p>The parts of this book could be arranged with complete impunity&nbsp;around one of the brightest stars in the firmament of philosophy&nbsp;and aesthetic reflection. Moreover, that star does not merely suggest&nbsp;a hypothesis of thematic correlation between the individual&nbsp;parts, but raises the problem of their own tendency (as parts) to&nbsp;have always implied a recomposition. The reference is to Kant’s&nbsp;third Critique, where the overall view is a preliminary condition&nbsp;to any fragment of knowledge and experience: if in the following&nbsp;pages it is possible to find a certain number of connections, it is&nbsp;also in relation to the problem that Kant meant to resolve by identifying&nbsp;a faculty that binds the exercise of the intellect to the latency&nbsp;of an organic framework. A framework without any content, as is&nbsp;well known, except precisely that of the propensity of each phenomenon&nbsp;to be first and foremost part of something. According&nbsp;to Kant, it is only by virtue of this propensity that we can enter&nbsp;into a relationship with the world, that we can feel and perceive&nbsp;it and that we enable it to mediate, through the feeling of pleasure,&nbsp;the experience of ourselves. This is not a requirement of the&nbsp;world, since it does not fall within the phenomenal and mechanical&nbsp;horizon of knowledge, but an indispensable projection for the subject&nbsp;to establish contact with the evidence of any singularity. And&nbsp;it will be precisely to the release of this evidence that one of the&nbsp;first and most enthusiastic readers of the third Critique, Goethe, will&nbsp;immediately associate the notions of form, morphology and metamorphosis,&nbsp;pinpointing an opening which, through Kantian reflection,&nbsp;can lead to the topics we will discuss.</p> Pierpaolo Ascari Copyright (c) 2021-03-02 2021-03-02 Living Stations https://books.bk.tudelft.nl/press/catalog/book/782 <p>Due to the growing demand for mobility (as a primary need for people to get to work, to obtain personal care or to go travelling), cities continue to be faced with new urban challenges. Stations represent, along mobility networks, not only transportation nodes (transfer points) but also architectural objects which connect an area to the city’s territorial plane and which have the potential to generate new urban dynamics. In the ‘compact city’ the station is simply no longer the space to access mobility networks, as informed by their dry pragmatism, but becomes an urban place of sociality and encounter - an extended public space beyond mobility itself. Which relationships and cross-fertilizations can be significant for the design of the future living stations in the Municipality of Rotterdam? How ought these stations to be conceived in order to act as public places for collective action? Which (archetypical) devices can be designed to give a shape to the ambitions for these stations? The station as a public space and catalyzer for urban interventions in the metropolitan area of Rotterdam is the focus of the research initiative presented in this publication. City of Innovations Project – Living Stations is organized around speculating and forecasting on future scenarios for the city of Rotterdam. ‘What is the future of Rotterdam with the arrival of a new metro circle line system?’ In the past fifty years, every decade of Rotterdam urban planning has seen its complementary metro strategy, with profound connections with the spatial planning and architectural themes. Considering the urban trends of densification and the new move to the city, a new complementary strategy is required. The plans to realize 50.000 new homes between the city center and the suburban residential districts in the next 20 years go together with the development of a new metro circle line consisting of 16 new stations; 6 of which will connect the new metro line to the existing network. Students of the elective City of Innovations Project (AR0109) have been asked to develop ambitious but plausible urban and architectural proposals for selected locations under the guidance of tutors from the Municipality of Rotterdam and Complex Projects. The Grand Paris Express metro project in France has inspired the course’s approach. Following the critical essays on the strategic role of the infrastructural project for city development interventions, the ‘10 Visions X 5 Locations’ chapter is a systematization of the work of 35 master’s students with input from designers of the City of Rotterdam and experts and academic from the University of Gustave Eiffel in Paris. The research-through-design process conducted in the City of Innovations project - Living Stations consists of documenting and analyzing the present urban conditions of selected station locations in the City of Rotterdam and proposing design solutions and visualizations of the predicted development of these locations.</p> Manuela Triggianese Olindo Caso Yagiz Soylev Copyright (c) 2021 Manuela Triggianese, Olindo Caso, Yagiz Soylev (Volume editor) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-04 2021-02-04