BK BOOKS 2021-04-12T17:14:57+00:00 Frank van der Hoeven Open Monograph Press <p><strong>BK BOOKS</strong>&nbsp;is an open press dedicated to open access book publications that are authored, edited and/or published by staff members of TU Delft's Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment,&nbsp;or its predecessors: Faculty of Architecture // OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment // Berlage Institute. The Dutch name for this faculty is Bouwkunde. This explains the abbreviation BK.</p> Socio-Economic Segregation and Income Inequality 2021-04-05T16:32:57+00:00 Maarten van Ham Rūta Ubarevičienė Tiit Tammaru Heleen Janssen <p>This book attempts to get a true global overview of trends in urban inequality and residential socio-economic segregation in a large number of cities all over the world. It investigates the link between income inequality and socio-economic residential segregation in 24 large urban regions in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America and South America. In many ways the book is a sequel to the earlier book “Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities” which focussed solely on trends in Europe. Although that book was very well received, readers also asked whether trends in Europe were representative for what is happening in the rest of the world. This new book is a direct response to that question and aims to be more globally representative.</p> <p>The main outcome of this book is the proposal of a Global Segregation Thesis, which combines ideas of rising levels of inequality, rising levels of socio-economic segregation, and important changes in the social geography of cities. At the time of writing this preface, the world is still grappling with the global outbreak of COVID-19. Now the spread of the virus is slowing down in the Global North, the Global South is hit very hard. In response to the spread of the virus, unprecedented measures were taken, having a huge impact on the world economy. It is widely expected that these measures will lead to a deep economic crisis, which will hit those who are the most vulnerable hardest. Some of the chapters in this book mention the COVID-19 crisis, and it is expected that this crisis will speed up the increase in inequality, both globally and locally, leading to an accelerated growth in socio-economic segregation in cities.</p> <p>This book would not have been possible without the generous contributions from author teams from all over the world. We are very grateful for their generosity and their contributions. Much of the editorial time invested in this book was covered by funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Program (FP/2007-2013)/ERC Grant Agreement n.615159 (ERC Consolidator Grant DEPRIVEDHOODS, Socio-spatial inequality, deprived neighbourhoods and neighbourhood effects); from the Estonian Research Council (PUT PRG306, Infotechnological Mobility Laboratory, RITA-Ränne), and from TU Delft where Tiit Tammaru was a visiting professor in 2018.</p> 2021-04-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Maarten van Ham, Rūta Ubarevičienė, Tiit Tammaru, Heleen Janssen (Volume editor) aE Journal 2020/2021 2021-04-12T17:14:57+00:00 Thijs Asselbergs Annebregje Snijders Mo Smit Mauro Parravicini Edmund Thomas Green <p>Does architecture still belong to the architect?</p> <p>Building is getting more and more complicated. Today an architect must be able to work across multiple disciplines. A new generation of architects attach less importance to ‘authorship’. Do architects see themselves as independent consultants any longer? They increasingly act as entrepreneurs who are part of a team of various disciplines and fields. Responsibility for a building or work of art is borne by several parties instead of just the architect. Does the team jointly take responsibility for architectural quality? In other words, does architecture still belong to the architect?</p> <p>Influence of users</p> <p>Influence of end-users is very important for every building. In the twentieth century we started with huge home productions. Many people had to be housed. Today there is a much greater need for how such mass production can adapt to the people themselves. How can you provide an answer to what is needed? We are working on mass customised building systems to optimise the high demand for housing. In the twentieth century, an architect said, “It’s not what they want, it’s what you want.” This attitude seems completely reversed and requires new answers from the architect. Another factor is that new digital technologies linked to machine-based production methods give great freedom in manufacturability. Think of 3D printing, robotics and CNC milling, for example. More freedom of design is generated. The “new architect” can play an ingenious role in this. In terms of process and product. Connecting digitisation and materialisation integrally.</p> <p>Architectural sustainability</p> <p>The aesthetic aspect will never be subordinate. You don’t just demolish a well-designed building. We attach ourselves to it. The aim must be to make sustainability and circularity an integral part of the creation of architecture. The implementation of the assignment can consist of assembling numerous different components, each of which also has its own life cycle. Designers together with clients must take the lead in this. We need new inspiring examples in the field of architecture that show society how we can build sustainably and intelligently. Government and investors must stimulate this.</p> <p>Create valuable neighbourhoods</p> <p>We must continue to work on making our own identities and culture visible. And we have to strengthen it. Diversity must remain linked to local and climatic conditions and the availability of materials. It is precisely by making use of the local availability of energy, materials and of the mobility that can be enhanced on site (such as water), that design choices remain inspired and influenced by local circumstances. Especially now that we are increasing parametric design and implementing digital systems in our daily practice, it requires new digital craftsmanship.</p> <p>The new architect</p> <p>Well-trained architects across all scales must be the pioneers of smart buildings and urban structures that also have cultural added value. This should be encouraged. It is called ‘value by design’. The complexity of our assignments is huge. Major architectural issues in urban and landscape environments await us, where it is of paramount importance that these can be tackled by the right talents with the right attitude. They must be supported in this by science, education, professionals, industry, politics and clients. This requires an attitude from the architect that I summarise as “the new architect”. This attitude is of added value to our society at all levels of the use of our built and unbuilt environment. This attitude is the guiding theme for aE. The future is now.</p> 2021-03-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Thijs Asselbergs, Annebregje Snijders, Mo Smit, Mauro Parravicini, Edmund Thomas Green (Volume editor) The Adventure of Form 2021-03-09T10:03:21+00:00 Pierpaolo Ascari <p>The parts of this book could be arranged with complete impunity&nbsp;around one of the brightest stars in the firmament of philosophy&nbsp;and aesthetic reflection. Moreover, that star does not merely suggest&nbsp;a hypothesis of thematic correlation between the individual&nbsp;parts, but raises the problem of their own tendency (as parts) to&nbsp;have always implied a recomposition. The reference is to Kant’s&nbsp;third Critique, where the overall view is a preliminary condition&nbsp;to any fragment of knowledge and experience: if in the following&nbsp;pages it is possible to find a certain number of connections, it is&nbsp;also in relation to the problem that Kant meant to resolve by identifying&nbsp;a faculty that binds the exercise of the intellect to the latency&nbsp;of an organic framework. A framework without any content, as is&nbsp;well known, except precisely that of the propensity of each phenomenon&nbsp;to be first and foremost part of something. According&nbsp;to Kant, it is only by virtue of this propensity that we can enter&nbsp;into a relationship with the world, that we can feel and perceive&nbsp;it and that we enable it to mediate, through the feeling of pleasure,&nbsp;the experience of ourselves. This is not a requirement of the&nbsp;world, since it does not fall within the phenomenal and mechanical&nbsp;horizon of knowledge, but an indispensable projection for the subject&nbsp;to establish contact with the evidence of any singularity. And&nbsp;it will be precisely to the release of this evidence that one of the&nbsp;first and most enthusiastic readers of the third Critique, Goethe, will&nbsp;immediately associate the notions of form, morphology and metamorphosis,&nbsp;pinpointing an opening which, through Kantian reflection,&nbsp;can lead to the topics we will discuss.</p> 2021-03-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Living Stations 2021-02-04T10:35:05+00:00 Manuela Triggianese Olindo Caso Yagiz Soylev <p>Due to the growing demand for mobility (as a primary need for people to get to work, to obtain personal care or to go travelling), cities continue to be faced with new urban challenges. Stations represent, along mobility networks, not only transportation nodes (transfer points) but also architectural objects which connect an area to the city’s territorial plane and which have the potential to generate new urban dynamics. In the ‘compact city’ the station is simply no longer the space to access mobility networks, as informed by their dry pragmatism, but becomes an urban place of sociality and encounter - an extended public space beyond mobility itself. Which relationships and cross-fertilizations can be significant for the design of the future living stations in the Municipality of Rotterdam? How ought these stations to be conceived in order to act as public places for collective action? Which (archetypical) devices can be designed to give a shape to the ambitions for these stations? The station as a public space and catalyzer for urban interventions in the metropolitan area of Rotterdam is the focus of the research initiative presented in this publication. City of Innovations Project – Living Stations is organized around speculating and forecasting on future scenarios for the city of Rotterdam. ‘What is the future of Rotterdam with the arrival of a new metro circle line system?’ In the past fifty years, every decade of Rotterdam urban planning has seen its complementary metro strategy, with profound connections with the spatial planning and architectural themes. Considering the urban trends of densification and the new move to the city, a new complementary strategy is required. The plans to realize 50.000 new homes between the city center and the suburban residential districts in the next 20 years go together with the development of a new metro circle line consisting of 16 new stations; 6 of which will connect the new metro line to the existing network. Students of the elective City of Innovations Project (AR0109) have been asked to develop ambitious but plausible urban and architectural proposals for selected locations under the guidance of tutors from the Municipality of Rotterdam and Complex Projects. The Grand Paris Express metro project in France has inspired the course’s approach. Following the critical essays on the strategic role of the infrastructural project for city development interventions, the ‘10 Visions X 5 Locations’ chapter is a systematization of the work of 35 master’s students with input from designers of the City of Rotterdam and experts and academic from the University of Gustave Eiffel in Paris. The research-through-design process conducted in the City of Innovations project - Living Stations consists of documenting and analyzing the present urban conditions of selected station locations in the City of Rotterdam and proposing design solutions and visualizations of the predicted development of these locations.</p> 2021-02-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Manuela Triggianese, Olindo Caso, Yagiz Soylev (Volume editor) LDE HERITAGE CONFERENCE on Heritage and the Sustainable Development Goals 2021-03-16T20:24:34+00:00 Uta Pottgiesser Sandra Fatoric Carola Hein Erik de Maaker Ana Pereira Roders <p>Heritage—natural and cultural, material and immaterial—plays a key role in the development of sustainable cities and communities. Goal 11, target 4, of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) emphasizes the relation between heritage and sustainability. The International LDE Heritage conference on Heritage and Sustainable Development Goals, which took place from 26 to 28 November 2019 at TU Delft in the Netherlands, examined the theories, methodologies, and practices of heritage and SDGs. It asked: How is heritage produced and defined? By whom and in what contexts? What are the conceptions of sustainability, and in what ways are these situational and contextual? How can theoretical findings on heritage and SDGs engage with heritage practice?</p> <p>The conference built on the multidisciplinary expertise of academics in the humanities, social, and spatial sciences, notably the interdisciplinary crossover research program, Design &amp; History, the new theme of Heritage Futures at TU Delft, on active collaboration within the LDE Center for Global Heritage and Development (CGHD), and on heritage-related research conducted by the three partner universities Leiden, Delft and Erasmus in Rotterdam by further associated partners in the consortium and internationally.</p> <p>At TU Delft the research programs bring together different departments and disciplines: architecture, urbanism, history, landscape architecture, real estate and management, and engineering. They aim to further an interdisciplinary understanding of the transformation of the built environment and, through the consistent use of the past, to enable buildings, cities, and landscapes to become more sustainable, resource-efficient, resilient, safe, and inclusive. Researchers from Leiden University approach heritage from a broad variety of disciplinary perspectives, such as archaeology, museum studies, cultural anthropology, and area studies. Heritage research at Leiden University explores processes of heritage creation, and the appreciation and evaluation of material and immaterial heritage, to gain new insights into the cultural constitution of societies. Creating, acknowledging, and contesting heritage tends to be politically sensitive as it involves assertions and redefinitions of memory and identity. History and social studies scholars from Erasmus University in Rotterdam add further insights into heritage practice.</p> <p>This conference created a setting where academics and heritage practitioners could explore these questions from specific perspectives. It brought together 120 academics and practitioners keen to develop their understanding of and their input into heritage conservation, and to increase their contributions towards the development of sustainable cities and communities. The three-day conference combined a variety of formats. Participants engaged in nine academic sessions with peer-reviewed papers, eight roundtables on strategic goals, and six workshops spent applying specific methods and tools.</p> 2021-01-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Uta Pottgiesser, Sandra Fatoric, Carola Hein, Erik de Maaker, Ana Pereira Roders (Volume editor) Dutch connections 2020-12-22T12:27:20+00:00 Sjoerd van Faassen Carola Hein Phoebus Panigyrakis <p>Throughout his career, Herman van Bergeijk built his own unique expertise on the Dutch 19th and early 20th century architectural history. He has become an inspiration for scholars in the Netherlands, Europe and beyond. The extraordinary response of colleagues when asked to contribute a chapter in this Festschrift stands as an example of Herman’s widespread influence. Invitations for keynotes and lectures or courses keep reaching him, and he will continue to teach and write. He has an open invitation to teach in China and still bubbles with ideas for yet another new publication series or journal. Several PhD students continue to rely on his guidance and will keep him engaged at the faculty. Herman thrives on lively discussions, in which he often plays devil’s advocate and tries to be as contrary as possible. I am convinced that we will continue to collaborate and battle on diverse topics, notably the role of history in the design of future architecture. Retirement is just another step in Herman’s career.</p> 2020-12-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Sjoerd van Faassen, Carola Hein, Phoebus Panigyrakis (Volume editor) Charles Prosper Wolff Schoemaker & Vincent Van Romondt 2020-12-22T11:27:17+00:00 Abidin Kusno <p>In this booklet, the architectural theorist and Professor at York University Abidin Kusno discusses two lectures given by two influential professors in the former Dutch colony of Indonesia. The first one, ‘The aesthetics of architecture and the art of the moderns’, was given by C. Wolff Schoemaker in 1930. The second, entitled ‘Towards an Indonesian Architecture’, was delivered by Vincent Van Romondt in 1954. Schoemaker and Van Romondt held different views on the challenges of architecture in the world as well as in Indonesia. They nevertheless both sought to bring the notion of modernism and tradition into the context of their time. The lectures are published here for the first time in English.</p> 2020-12-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Abidin Kusno (Volume editor) The Urbanisation of the Sea 2020-12-14T10:20:22+00:00 Nancy Couling Carola Hein <p>The book tells the story of the sea-land continuum based on the case of the North Sea — one of the world’s most industrialised seas, in which the Netherlands plays a central role. The space of the North Sea is almost fully planned and has been loaded with the task of increased economic production from new and traditional maritime sectors. At the same time, it has been emptied of cultural signi ficance.</p> <p>Through diverse projects from academia, art, literature, and practice, from analysis to design, the book explores synergies for designing this new spatial realm. Port city expert Carola Hein, professor of the history of architecture &amp; urban planning at Delft University of Technology, and Nancy Couling, associate professor at the Bergen School of Architecture and researcher of the urbanised sea, combine forces with interdisciplinary experts to guide the reader through this complex and fascinating topic.</p> 2020-12-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nancy Couling, Carola Hein (Volume editor) Reimagining Heerenstraat 2020-12-02T14:48:48+00:00 Santiago del Hierro Luiz de Carvalho Filho Joseph Tjong-Ayong <p>In 2016, the Government of Suriname, financed by a loan from the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), launched the Paramaribo Urban Rehabilitation Program (PURP), which contributes to the socio-economic revitalisation of Paramaribo’s historic inner city. It aims to attract new residents and commercial activities to the centre of Paramaribo, to restore value to its cultural heritage, to reduce traffic congestion and to strengthen the institutional framework for managing its sustainable development. The program also aims for a climate-smart approach to infrastructural interventions.</p> <p>From July 29 to August 2, 2019, Luiz de Carvalho Filho and Santiago del Hierro, from the Department of Urbanism of the Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment at TU Delft, visited Paramaribo to explore the possible topics for a Workshop Program in support of PURP to be carried out in November 2019. This Technical Cooperation would take place in coordination with IDB and the Government of Suriname, particularly the Ministry of Education’s Directorate of Culture. The cooperation would be realised as part of the fall semester of the European Post-master in Urbanism (EMU), in parallel to a research and design studio for the Amsterdam Metropolitan Area.</p> <p>In contrast to the approach to Amsterdam, students in the Paramaribo Workshop shifted in scale from a metropolitan understanding of the city, to a neighbourhood perspective where spatial justice was addressed through social participation and a local understanding of what makes urban space lively, inclusive and safe. Paramaribo and Amsterdam are cities that have a strong relationship due to a shared colonial history. Their relationship has continued to remain very active even since the independence of Suriname in 1975, when a high percentage of the population of Paramaribo emigrated to the Netherlands. In this sense, the workshop also included the perspective of Dutch-Surinamese citizens who experience both places as home. This helped us broaden our understanding of how urban liveliness is experienced in different Surinamese contexts. Input from The Black Archives, the Grote Surinam Exhibition and the Bijlmer Museum in Amsterdam was integrated into the workshop’s preliminary research.</p> <p>Between 3 and 8 November, during the workshop week in Paramaribo, TU Delft students, together with local stakeholders, focused on the analysis of local conditions and possible strategies that can support a sustainable revitalisation of the Heerenstraat, a street with enormous potential to become one of the Historic Inner City’s most iconic destinations due to its inherent beauty and the public activities that the community is continuously organising.</p> <p>By focusing on the interaction of various layers on an intervention at a smaller scale (the Heerenstraat and its adjacent buildings and public spaces), the workshop aimed at understanding and visualising a concrete roadmap towards a more lively, active and safe space in this specific case study within the Historic Inner City.</p> 2020-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Santiago del Hierro, Luiz de Carvalho Filho, Joseph Tjong-Ayong (Author) Anchoring the design process 2020-10-17T11:43:05+00:00 Elise van Dooren <p>This thesis proposes a framework to address the design process in design education. Building upon the assumption that teachers, being professional designers, do not discuss the design process in the architectural design studio and do not have a vocabulary to do so, five generic elements or anchor points are defined which represent the basic design skills. The validity of the framework and the assumption is tested respectively in interviews with a variety of designers and in observations of dialogues between teachers and students. In the final test the design process is addressed in the design studio: the first experiences show that students’ understanding and self-efficacy may increase. The five elements enable teachers and students to address the designerly attitude. The way designers reason consist of: (1) experimentation; an experimentation-based way of thinking; how to explore and reflect, (2) the frame of reference; a knowledge-based way of thinking; how to work with common and proven ‘professional’ knowledge, and (3) the guiding theme; a value-based way of thinking; how to take a position in the design process. Next to that, (4) the laboratory is the (visual) language or set of means designers use to think designerly, and (5) the domains are the playing field of the designer, the product aspects s/he should address.</p> 2020-10-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Elise van Dooren (Author)